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Muddied Waters

A Survey of Offshore Oilfield Drilling Wastes and Disposal Techniques to Reduce the Ecological Impact of Sea Dumping

by Jonathan Wills, M.A., Ph.D., M.Inst.Pet., for Ekologicheskaya Vahkta Sakhalina (Sakhalin Environment Watch); 25th May 2000

Summary List of Main Sources:

The most useful sources of technical and legislative data on drilling muds, drill cuttings and produced water are as follows:

Boesch, D. F. and Rabalais, N. N. (eds.). 1987. Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board, Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and Canada National Energy Board. 1996. Offshore Waste Treatment Guidelines. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board, Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and Canada National Energy Board. 1999. Guidelines Respecting The Selection of Chemicals Intended to be Used in Conjunction with Offshore Drilling & Production Activities on Frontier Lands. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

CEFAS. 2000a. Guidelines for the UK Revised Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme in Accordance with the OSPARCOM Harmonised Offshore Chemical Notification Format. http://www.cefas.co.uk/ocns. London.

CEFAS, 2000b. UK Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme - List of Notified Chemicals. http://www.cefas.co.uk/OCNS/LNC310300v5. London

Det Norske Veritas. 2000. Technical Report - Drill Cuttings Joint Industry Project. Phase I Summary Report. Revision 2: 20th January 2000. DNV doc. order No. 29003500. Oslo.

Engelhardt, F. R., Ray, J. P. and Gillam, A.H.(eds.)1989. Drilling Wastes [proceedings of an international conference on drilling wastes, held at Calgary, Alberta, in 1988]. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, Barking, England. ISBN 1851662782.

MARPOL [1997] Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil. MARPOL 73/78. Annex 1, Regulations 16, 17 & 21. IMO, London.

Neff, J. M. 1987. Biological Effects of Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings and Produced Waters, in Boesch, D. F. and Rabalais N. N. (eds.). 1987. Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, pp. 469-538. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London.

Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority [Statens forurensningstilsyn - SFT]. 1991. [English translation of] Regulations Concerning Discharge of Oil-Contaminated Drill Cuttings from Petroleum Activity on the Continental Shelf; Laid Down by the Ministry of Environment on 10 June 1991 [under the Pollution Control Act, 1981:9(1.3)]. SFT, Oslo.

Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority [SFT]. 1998a. General conditions, given as a part of the permit for discharge of oil, drilling fluids and chemicals. SFT, Oslo http://www.sft.no/3502.doc

Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority [SFT]. 1998b. Requirements for Ecotoxicological Testing and Environmental Assessment of Offshore Chemicals and Drilling Fluids. SFT, Oslo. http://www.sft.no/3504.doc

Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority [SFT]. 1999a. Environmental Monitoring of Petroleum Activities on the Norwegian Shelf; Guidelines 99:01. SFT, Oslo.

Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority[SFT]. 1999b. Pollution Control Act, 1981 [described and translated]. SFT, Oslo. http://www.sft.no/e36.html.

Olsgard, F., and Gray, J.S. 1995. A comprehensive analysis of the effects of offshore oil and gas exploration and production on the benthic communities of the Norwegian continental shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 122: 277-306.

Oslo-Paris Convention For The Protection Of The Marine Environment Of The North-East Atlantic [OSPAR - originally the Oslo and Paris Conventions]. 1992a. PARCOM Decision 92/2 on the Use of Oil-based Muds. London.

OSPAR. 1992b. PARCOM Recommendation 92/6 on Best Available Technology for Produced Water Management on Offshore Gas and Oil Installations. Brussels.

OSPAR. 1994. Decision 94/1 on Substances/Preparations Used and Discharged Offshore. Paris Commission. Paris.

OSPAR. 1996. PARCOM Decision 96/3 on a Harmonized Mandatory Control System for the Use and Reduction of the Discharge of Offshore Chemicals. Oslo.

OSPAR. 1997. PARCOM Decision 97/1 on Substances/Preparations Used and Discharged Offshore. Brussels.

OSPAR. 1999a. List of Substances / Preparations Used and Discharged Offshore Which Are Considered to Pose Little or No Risk to the Environment (PLONOR). 1999-9.

OSPAR 1999b. OSPAR Strategy On Environmental Goals And Management Mechanisms For Offshore Activities. 1999-12. Kingston upon Hull.

OSPAR. 1999c.[Annual Report on] Activities of OSPAR July 1998-June 1999 [and] Implementation of the OSPAR Action Plan 1998 - 2003. OSPAR Commission, London.

OSPAR. 2000. Draft Measures Proposed by the OSPAR Working Group on Sea-based Activities (SEBA), February 2000. Amsterdam.

Patin, S. A. 1999. Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil & Gas Industry. Eco Monitor Publishing, East Northport, New York. ISBN 0-967 1836-0-X. http://www.offshore-environment.com

United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, Oil and Gas Directorate. 1999. Guidance Notes on the Offshore Petroleum Production and Pipelines (Assessment of Environmental Effects) Regulations 1999. Edition 2, March 1999. HMSO, London.

United Kingdom Offshore Operators' Association. 1999a. Drill Cuttings Joint Industry Project. Website. http://www.ukooa.co.uk/issues/index.cfm?page=drillcuttings/ London.

United States Department of the Interior (DOI), Minerals Management Service (MMS). 1996. Outer Continental Shelf Oil & Gas Leasing Program: 1997-2002. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. pp IV18-IV35. USMMS, Washington D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1993. Final Modification of the NPDES General Permit for the Western Portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the Gulf of Mexico (GMG290000). Federal Register Vol. 58, No. 231, 12/3/93, pp. 63964-63986. Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1996b. Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category; Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Coastal Subcategory; Final Rule. 40 CFR Part 435. Federal Register 61:242. (66085-66130). 12/16/96. Washington D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1998. Final NPDES General Permits for the Eastern Portion of Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (GMG280000) and Record of Decision. Federal Register 63:200 (55717-55762) 10/16/98. Washington D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999a. Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for Synthetic-Based and Other Non-Aquaeous Drilling Fluids in the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 40 CFR. Part 435:5488-5554. 2/3/99. Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999b. Final NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and Production Facilities in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Federal Register 64:46 (11885-11908). 3/10/99. Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999c. Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources and New Dischargers in the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Category for the Western Portion of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (GMG290000) and Notice of a Proposed Modification to That Permit. Federal Register 64:74(19156-19177). 4/19/99. Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2000 (April) Notice of Data Availability; Effluent Limitations Guidelines for the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category [draft public consultation document on proposed new rules governing offshore discharges of SBM/SBF]. CFR Part 435. Washington, D.C.

World Oil. 2000. Fluids Tables. Gulf Publishing Company. Houston, Texas. Website: http://www.worldoil.com/techtables/techtable_detail.asp?TECHTBLID=4&TECHTBLSUBID=4&TECHLINK=105


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"Muddied Waters":

Contents

Author

List of Abbreviations

Summary of Conclusions

Drilling Waste Streams from Offshore Oil and Gas Installations

The Law on Offshore Wastes Discharges in Different Jurisdictions:

The OSPAR Convention

United Kingdom

Norway

Canada

United States

Inviting Regulation

Environmental Effects of Drilling Waste Discharges

The SBM Controversy

"Non-Water Quality Environmental Impacts"

Additives

Drill Cuttings

Produced Water

Minimising Waste Discharges and Their Effects

Reinjection Offshore

Cleaning Produced Waters

List of Main Sources

Selected References





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