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Muddied Waters

A Survey of Offshore Oilfield Drilling Wastes and Disposal Techniques to Reduce the Ecological Impact of Sea Dumping

by Jonathan Wills, M.A., Ph.D., M.Inst.Pet., for Ekologicheskaya Vahkta Sakhalina (Sakhalin Environment Watch); 25th May 2000

Selected references

Selected references - water-based drilling muds, drill cuttings and produced water.

Addy, J. M. et al. 1978 Biological Monitoring of Sediments in the Ekofisk Oilfield. In Proceedings of a Conference on the Assessment of the Ecological Effects of Oil Spills, pp. 515-539. American Institute of Biological Science, Washington D.C.

Addy, J. M., Harley, J. P. and Tibbetts, P. J.. 1984. Ecological Effects of Low Toxicity Oil-Based Mud Drilling in the Beatrice Oilfield. Marine Pollution Bulletin 15:429-436.

AEA Technology Environment, Rogaland Research and SINTEF Applied Chemistry. 2000. Acceleration of Natural Degradation [of drilling wastes]. UKOOA Drill Cutting Initiative, Research and Development Programme, London.

Alaska Forum for Environmental Responsibility. 1997. Poisoning the Well: Whistleblower Disclosures of Illegal Hazardous Waste Disposal on Alaska's North Slope. AFER, Valdez, Alaska. Website: http://www.alaska.net/~afervdz/akwbnews.html

Allen, K. O. 1977. A Comparison of Environmental Concerns from Oil and Gas Drilling Operations with Those from Dredging and Dredge Material Disposal and Research Procedures and Results of the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP) That Could Be Applicable to Drilling Muds and Cuttings Research. Vicksburg, Mississippi: USDOD, Army COE.

AMBIOS Environmental Consultants Ltd. 1999. Impact of Offshore Disposal Solutions. United Kingdom Offshore Operators' Association, London.

American Petroleum Institute. 1995. Proceedings: Workshop to Identify Promising Technologies for the Treatment of Produced Water Toxicity.Health and Environmental Sciences Departmental Report No. DR351. Parsons Engineering Science, Fairfax, Virginia.

Anonymous. 1998. IADC Joins in Conference Exploring Offshore Environmental Practices. [report on UN Commission on Sustainable Development conference at Leiden, Netherlands, 17-20 Nov. 1998]. Drilling Contractor, Jan. 1998. pp. 68-69.

Arnhus, K. M., and Slora, G. 1991. Cuttings and Waste Mud Disposal. Drilling Conference: Proceedings of the 1991 IADC/SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Society of Petroleum Engineers. International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC)/Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). Richardson, Texas.

Auble, G. T., Andrews, A. K., Hamilton, D. B., Roelle, J. E. and Shoemaker, T. C.. 1984. A Workshop Model Simulating Fate and Effect of Drilling Muds and Cuttings on Benthic Communities. USEPA, Office of Research and Development.

Ayers, R. C., Jr., Sauer, T. C. Jr., Steubner, D. O. and Meek, R. P. 1980. An Environmental Study to Assess the Effect of Drilling Fluids on Water Quality Parameters During High Rate, High Volume Discharges to the Ocean. Proceedings of a Symposium: Research on Environmental Fate and Effects of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings, Lake Buena Vista, Fla.: pp. 351-391. American Petroleum Institute. Washington, D.C.

Ayers, R. C. Jr., Sauer, T. C. Jr., Meek, R. P. and Bowers, G.. 1980. An Environmental Study to Assess the Impact of Drilling Discharges in the Mid-Atlantic. Proceedings of a Symposium: Research on Environmental Fate and Effects of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings, Lake Buena Vista, Fla.: pp. 382-418. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC.

B.C. Research, Environment Canada and Environmental Protection Service Industry/ Government Working Group. Disposal of Waste Fluids from Petroleum Exploratory Drilling in the Canadian North. Marine Toxicity Studies on Drilling Fluid Wastes. Vol 10.

Baker, J. M. (ed.) 1975. Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution. Applied Science Publishing, Barking, England.

Bakke, T., Berge, J.A., Schaaning, M. Skeie, G. M. and Oreld, F. 1989. Effects of Low-aromatic Drill Cuttings on an enclosed Deepwater Sediment Community. In Engelhardt, F. R. et al. (eds). 1989. Drilling Wastes. pp. 495-520. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, Barking, England.

Bakke, T., and Laake, M. 1991. Test on Degradation of a New Drill Mud Type Under Natural Conditions. Final Report, Nork. Inst. For Vannforskning. Oslo.

Beak Consultants and Imperial Oil Limited 1974. Disposal of waste drilling fluids in the Canadian Arctic. APOA project no.73. APOA, Calgary.

Bell, N., Picken, G., Cripps, S.J., Jacobsen, T.G. & Kjeilen, G. 1998. Review of cuttings piles in the North Sea. 1998/377. Rogaland Research [Rogalandsforskning] Stavanger.

Boesch, D. F. and Rabalais, N. N. (eds.). 1987. Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London.

Boothe, P. N., and Presley, B. J. 1983. Distribution and Behavior of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings Around Gulf of Mexico Drill Sites. American Petroleum Institute Draft Final Report API Project No 243. API, Washington D.C.

Borisov, V. P., Osetrova, N. V., Ponomarenko, V. P. and Semenov, V. N. 1994. Impact of Offshore Oil and Gas Developments on the Bioresources of the Barents Sea. VNIRO, Moscow.

Brandsma, M. G., Davis, L. R., Ayers, R. C. Jr., Sauer, T. C. Jr. 1980. A Computer Model to Predict the Short Term Fate of Drilling Discharges in the Marine Environment. Proceedings of a Symposium: Research on Environmental Fate and Effects of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings, Lake Buena Vista, Fla.: pp. 508-510. American Petroleum Institute. Washington, DC.

Brandsma, M. G., and Sauer, R. C.. 1983. The OOC Model: Prediction of Short Term Fate Drilling Fluids in the Ocean, Part Two: Model Results. Proceedings of the Minerals Management Workshop on Discharges Modeling, Santa Barbara, Calif. USMMS.

Brandsma, M. G., Sauer, T. C. and Ayers, R. C. 1983. Mud Discharge Model, Report and Users Guide. Exxon.

Brasier, F. 1992. Injection Control Regulations - Federal Framework and Alaska Regulations. Proceedings of a Seminar on Subterranean Disposal of Drill Cuttings and Produced Water. Stavanger.

Bruno, M.S., Bilak, R.A., Dusseault, M.B., and Rothenburg, L. 1995. Economic disposal of oil field wastes through Slurry Fracture Injection, IADC/SPE 29646, Proc. West. Reg. Mtg. SPE, Bakersfield, CA, March 8-10, 1995, pp. 313-320. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, Texas.

Burgess & Garrick. 2000. Waste Management. Website: http://www.burgess-garrick.co.uk/about.htm. Lerwick.

Canada Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Environment Canada, Canada Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Industry/Government Working Group on Disposal of Waste Fluids from Petroleum Exploratory Drilling in the Canadian North, and Arctic Petroleum Operators Association. 1982. Report on offshore oil & gas drilling fluid disposal in the Canadian North. Yellowknife, N.W.T.

Canada National Energy Board (NEB). 1987. Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act, R.S.C. 1987, c. O-7. CNEB, Ottowa.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. 1987. Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, S.C. 1987, c. 3. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. 1990. Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation (Newfoundland) Act, R.S.N. 1990, c. C-2. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board, Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and Canada National Energy Board. 1996. Offshore Waste Treatment Guidelines. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board, Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and Canada National Energy Board. 1999. Guidelines Respecting The Selection of Chemicals Intended to be Used in Conjunction with Offshore Drilling & Production Activities on Frontier Lands. CNOPB. St Johns, NF.

Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board.1987. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act, S.N.S. 1987, c. 3. CNSOPB. Halifax. N.S.

Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. 1988 Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act, S.C. 1988, c-2 CNSOPB. Halifax. N.S.

Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. 1990. SSDC/MAT Environmental Protection Manual. Canmar.

Carls, M. G., and Rice, S. D. 1984. Toxic Contributions of Specific Drilling Mud Components to Larval Shrimp and Crabs. Marine Environmental Research 12:45-62. RU 72, OCSEAP #4318;

CEFAS. 2000a. Guidelines for the UK Revised Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme in Accordance with the OSPARCOM Harmonised Offshore Chemical Notification Format.http://www.cefas.co.uk/ocns. London.

CEFAS, 2000b. UK Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme - List of Notified Chemicals. http://www.cefas.co.uk/OCNS/LNC310300v5. London

Chinareva, I. D. 1989. Patohistological Changes in Fish Under Impact of Some Polymers. In Theses of the First All-Union Conference on Fisheries Toxicology, 2:191-192. Riga.

Cimato, J. 1980. Hydrocarbons and Drilling Fluids in the Marine Environment. BLM . Proposed Five-Year OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale Schedule, March 1980-February 1985, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix 8. USDOI, Washington D.C.

Clarke, T. L., and Swift, D. J. P.. 1984. The Formation of Mud Patches by Non-Linear Diffusion. Continental Shelf Research 3:1-8.

Coats, D. A. 1994. Deposition of Drilling Particulates off Point Conception, California. Marine Environmental Research 37:95-127.

Cordah Environmental Management Consultants. 2000. Determination of the Physical Characteristics of Cuttings Piles, Using Existing Survey Data and drilling Information: R & D Programme 1.1, A Report for the UKOOA Drill Cuttings Joint Industry Project. London.

Cranford, P. J., and Gordon, D. C. 1991. Chronic Sublethal Impact of Mineral Oil-Based Drilling Mud Cuttings on Adult Sea Scallops. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:339-344.

Cranford, P. J., Gordon, D. C., Lee, K., Armsworthy, S. L. and Tremblay G. H. 1999. Chronic Toxicity and Physical Disturbance Effects of Water- and Oil-based Drilling Fluids and Some Major Constituents on Adult Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Marine Environmental Research 48:225-256.

Crippen, R. W., and Hood, S. L.. 1980. Metal Levels in Sediment and Benthos Resulting from a Drilling Fluid Discharge into the Beaufort Sea. Proceedings of a Symposium: Research on Environmental Fate and Effects of Drilling Fluids and Cuttings, Lake Buena Vista, Fla.: pp. 636-669. American Petroleum Institute. Washington, DC.

Cripps, S.J. 1998 Disposal of Oil-based Drill Cuttings. Report for UKOOA [United Kingdom Offshore Operators' Association]. Rogaland Research [Rogalandsforskning] Stavanger.

Daan, R., Van Het Groenewoud, H., De Jong, S.A., Mulder M. 1992. Physico-chemical and Biological Features of a Drilling Site in the North Sea, One Year after Discharges of Oil-contaminated Drill Cuttings. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 91(1-3):37-45.

Dames & Moore. 1978. Dames and Moore. Drilling Fluid Dispersion and Biological Effects Study for the Lower Cook Inlet C.O.S.T. Well. Atlantic Richfield Company.

Dames & Moore and NIOZ. 1999. Faunal Colonisation of of Drill Cuttings Pile Based on Literature Review. UKOOA Drill Cutting Initiative, Research and Development Programme, London.

Davies, J.M., Hardy, R. and McIntyre, A. D. 1981. Environmental Effects of North Sea Oil Operations. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 12:412-416. London.

Davies, J.M., Bedborough D. R., Blackman, R. A. A., Addy, J. M., Appelbee, J. F., Grogran, W. C., Parker J. G. and Whitehead.. A. 1984. Environmental Effects of the Use of Oil-based Drilling Muds in the North Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 15(10):363-370. London.

Davies, J.M., and Kingston, P. F. 1992. Sources of Environmental Disturbance Associated with Offshore Oil and Gas Developments. In Cairns, W. J. (ed.). 1992. North Sea Oil and the Environment. Elsevier Applied Science. London.

De Margerie, S. 1989. Modelling Drill Cuttings Discharges. In Engelhardt, F. R. et al. (eds). 1989. Drilling Wastes. pp. 627-646. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, Barking, England.

Derby, J. G. S., and Capuzzo. J. M. 1984. Lethal and Sublethal Toxicity of Drilling Fluids to Larvae of the American Lobster, Homarus americanus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41:1334-1340.

Det Norske Veritas. 2000. Technical Report - Drill Cuttings Joint Industry Project. Phase I Summary Report. Revision 2: 20th January 2000. DNV doc. order No. 29003500. Oslo.

Di Toro, D. M., Mahony, J. D., Hansen, D. J., Scott, K. J., Hicks, M. B., Mayr, S. M. and Redmond, M. S. 1990. Toxicity of Cadmium in Sediments - the Role of Acid Volatile Sulfide. Environ. Toxicol. Chem 9:1487-1502.

Di Toro, D. M., Mahony, J. D., Hansen, D. J., Scott, K. J., Carlson, A. R. and Ankley, G. T. 1992. Acid Volatile Sulfide Predicts the Acute Toxicity of Cadmium and Nickel in Sediments. Environmental Science Technology 26:96-101.

Dokholyan, v. k., Ahmedova, T. P., Magomedov, A. K. and Shleifer, G. S. 1988. Fish Response to the Presence of Some Drilling Fluid Components in the Environment. In Theses of the First All-Union Conference on Fisheries Toxicology, 1:125-126. Riga.

Dome Petroleum Limited 1974. Interim guidelines for waste management in exploratory drilling in the Canadian north. Dome Petroleum Ltd., Calgary.

Dow, F. K., Davies, J. M. and Raffaelli, D. 1990. The Effects of Drill Cuttings on a Model Marine Sediment System. Marine Environmental Research 29:103-134.


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"Muddied Waters":

Contents

Author

List of Abbreviations

Summary of Conclusions

Drilling Waste Streams from Offshore Oil and Gas Installations

The Law on Offshore Wastes Discharges in Different Jurisdictions:

The OSPAR Convention

United Kingdom

Norway

Canada

United States

Inviting Regulation

Environmental Effects of Drilling Waste Discharges

The SBM Controversy

"Non-Water Quality Environmental Impacts"

Additives

Drill Cuttings

Produced Water

Minimising Waste Discharges and Their Effects

Reinjection Offshore

Cleaning Produced Waters

List of Main Sources

Selected References





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