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Environmental impact
of the offshore oil and gas industry

Author: Stanislav Patin, Ph.D. * Translator: Elena Cascio, Ph.D.
ISBN 0-9671836-0-X
Hardcover * 425+xi pages * 6x9 * LCCN 99-73791 * US$199.00
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. Present state and trends of developing offshore oil and gas resources

1.1. General characteristics and prospects

1.2. Historical and regional aspects

1.3. Oil and gas on the Russian shelf

Conclusions
References

Chapter 2. Anthropogenic impact on the hydrosphere and the present state of the marine environment

2.1. Structure and scale of anthropogenic impact

2.2. Marine pollution:

2.2.1. Pollutant input into the marine environment
2.2.2. Sources, composition, and degree of hazards of pollution components
2.2.3. Global and regional aspects

Conclusions
References

Chapter 3. Factors of the offshore oil and gas industry's impact on the marine environment and fishing

3.1. General characteristics

3.2. Geological and geophysical surveys on the shelf:

3.2.1. Seismic disturbances
3.2.2. Electro-surveys

3.3. Drilling and production activities:

3.3.1. Steps and operations
3.3.2. Sources, types, and volumes of waste discharges
3.3.3. Chemical composition of discharged wastes
3.3.4. Atmospheric emissions

3.4. Accidental situations:

3.4.1. Statistics and causes
3.4.2. Drilling accidents
3.4.3. Transportation and storage accidents

3.5. Impact on the fishing industry

3.6. Decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations:

3.6.1. Abandonment options
3.6.2. Secondary use of offshore fixed platforms
3.6.3. Explosive activities

3.7. Environmental hazard and risk assessment

Conclusions
References

Chapter 4. Biogeochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of crude oil and oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment

4.1. Composition and main properties of crude oil and its fractions

4.2. Sources and volumes of input into the World Ocean

4.3. Fate and behavior in the marine environment

4.4. Environmental levels and distribution in the marine ecosystems:

4.4.1. Background characteristics
4.4.2. Content and distribution in seawater
4.4.3. Content and distribution in bottom sediments
4.4.4. Accumulation in marine organisms

4.5. Effects of oil on marine organisms, populations, and ecosystems:

4.5.1. General characteristics and mechanisms of biological effects
4.5.2. Toxic and threshold concentrations in seawater
4.5.3. Toxic and threshold concentrations in bottom sediments
4.5.4. Oil as a multicomponent toxicant
4.5.5. Methodological aspects of marine ecotoxicology of the oil

4.6. Levels, thresholds, and zones of manifestation of biological effects

Conclusions
References

Chapter 5. Biogeochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of natural gas in the marine environment

5.1. Sources, composition, and biogeochemistry of natural combustible gas in the biosphere

5.2. Concentrations and distribution of methane and its homologues in the World Ocean

5.3. Methane impact on water organisms and communities:

5.3.1. General outline and mechanisms of biological response
5.3.2. Field and laboratory studies

5.4. Toxicological characteristics of gas condensate and gas hydrates

5.5. Levels, thresholds, and zones of biological effects

Conclusions
References

Chapter 6. Ecotoxicological characteristics of related chemicals and wastes from the offshore oil industry

6.1. Drilling discharges:

6.1.1. Drilling fluids (muds)
6.1.2. Components of drilling fluids
6.1.3. Drilling cuttings and suspended substances

6.2. Produced waters and their components

6.3. Oil spill-control agents:

6.3.1. Composition, properties, and conditions of applying spill-control agents
6.3.2. Ecotoxicological aspects of applying dispersants

Conclusions
References

Chapter 7. Ecological and fisheries implications of offshore oil and gas development

7.1. Environmental stress and biological effects

7.2. Ecological situation in areas of offshore oil and gas activity:

7.2.1. Sources, levels, and consequences of seawater pollution
7.2.2. Sources, levels, and effects of bottom sediment pollution

7.3. Accidental oil spills

7.4. Chronic contamination and long-term environmental effects

7.5. Biological resources, fisheries, and offshore oil and gas industry:

7.5.1. Oil impacts on fisheries resources
7.5.2. Deterioration of the quality of fish and other commercial organisms

Conclusions
References

Chapter 8. Environmental management and regulation of the offshore oil and gas industry

8.1. Strategic principles and approaches

8.2. General systems of environmental management, control, and regulation

8.3. Environmental requirements:

8.3.1. Standards and requirements for discharges
8.3.2. Standards and requirements for quality of the marine environment
8.3.3. Ecofisheries requirements

8.4. Problems of ecological monitoring:

8.4.1. General features and approaches
8.4.2. Methodology and methods

8.5. International and national aspects of regulation

Conclusions
References

General Conclusions
Appendix
Index


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