Chapter 4. Biogeochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of crude oil and oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment
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The text analyzes the fate, behavior and toxicity of crude oil
and oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Composition, sources and input
volumes of oil hydrocarbons in the sea are discussed. In-depth description of
chemical and physical changes of oil during an oil spill in the sea is provided.
Factors affecting the slick behavior and distribution are examined. Detailed
worldwide data on content and distribution of oil hydrocarbons in seawater,
bottom sediments and marine organisms are summarized in comprehensive tables.
Environmentally safe, threshold and toxic levels of oil hydrocarbons in seawater
and sediments are defined. Effects of oil on marine organisms, populations, and
ecosystems are discussed. Includes all original charts, tables, graphics and
diagrams from the book, as well as conclusions and list of references.
91 pages. PDF file. $37.00
Chapter 4. Biogeochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of crude
oil and oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment
4.1. Composition and main properties of crude oil and its fractions
4.2. Sources and volumes of input into the World Ocean
4.3. Fate and behavior in the marine environment
4.4. Environmental levels and distribution in the marine ecosystems:
Oxidation and destruction
4.4.1. Background characteristics
4.5. Effects of oil on marine organisms, populations, and ecosystems:
4.4.2. Content and distribution in seawater
4.4.3. Content and distribution in bottom sediments
4.4.4. Accumulation in marine organisms
4.5.1. General characteristics and mechanisms of biological effects
4.6. Levels, thresholds, and zones of manifestation of biological effects
4.5.2. Toxic and threshold concentrations in seawater
4.5.3. Toxic and threshold concentrations in bottom sediments
4.5.4. Oil as a multicomponent toxicant
4.5.5. Methodological aspects of marine ecotoxicology of the oil
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