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Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry by Stanislav Patin - a unique summary of world-wide studies on the environmental issues associated with offshore oil and gas exploration and development

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OIL SPILLS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND LIVING RESOURCES

Author: Dr Stanislav Patin
VNIRO Publishing, Moscow, 2009. 508 pp (Russian)

Synopsis

The book is devoted to actual ecological problems associated with oil spills in the sea and their impact on the marine environment, living resources and fisheries. Statistics, amount, and causes of oil spills during the main operations of the offshore oil production and transportation are analyzed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are considered as an natural (ecological) and anthropogenic (toxic) factor in the marine environment. Characteristic oil spill types and scenarios of their developing in open and coastal zones are described. Oil pollution effects in marine biota (including commercial species) are assessed based on a new methodology and a set of criteria. The most serious economic damage of oil spills to the fisheries seems to be related to restrictions (closure) of the fishing in polluted areas. Principle difficulties in identification and quantitative estimation of oil spill impact on commercial fish populations are demonstrated. Modern approaches and methods of oil spill prevention and response are summarized based on the national and international experience in this field. A number of conclusions and recommendations for dissolving environmental problems and minimizing oil spill ecological risk is suggested with a special focus on analyzing actual and potential situations of developing oil and gas resources on the Russian continental shelf.

The book is addressed to a broad circle of specialists in applied ecology and oceanography, marine ecology, fisheries, oil and gas industry as well as to nature protection agencies and services for assisting oil spill prevention, contingency planning and response measures.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. Causes, statistics and amount of oil spills in the sea

1.1. Worldwide situation

1.2. Accidents on platforms

1.3. Submarine pipeline accidents

1.4. Tanker accidents

1.5. Accident on oil terminals

1.6. Small spills and non-accidental oil release

1.6.1. Types, causes, trends

1.6.2. Oil production and transportation

1.6.3. Offshore and coastal shipping

1.7. Overall assessment

Conclusions

Chapter 2. Composition, properties and fate of oil spilled in the sea

2.1. Chemical composition and properties of oil

2.2. Classification of crude oil and oil product types

2.3. Oil behavior and transformation in the sea

2.3.1. Transport and weathering processes

2.3.2. Oil biodegradation

2.4. Natural cleaning of marine environment

2.5. Eco-toxicological characteristics of oil

2.5.1. Oil as a complex toxicant

2.5.2. Biological and ecological availability

Conclusions

Chapter 3. Types and scenarios of oil spills in the sea

3.1. Marine ecological zones and oil spill types

3.1.1. Ecological shelf zones

3.1.2. Ecological spill types

3.2. Offshore spills

3.3. Coastal spills

3.4. Mixed type spills

3.5. Oil spills in the ice conditions

3.6. Heavy oil spills

3.7. Hydrocarbons release from the marine bottom

3.8. Selected chronicle of oil spill catastrophes

Conclusions

Chapter 4. Methodology of impact assessment and prediction of oil spill ecological consequences

4.1. Basic approaches, principles, limitations

4.2. Conceptual scheme of integrated ecological impact assessment

4.2.1. Assessment phases, types and peculiarities

4.2.2. Assessment criteria and thresholds of disturbances

4.2.3. Eco-toxicological methods and approaches

4.3. Methodology of ecological risk assessment

4.4. Oil spill modeling

4.4.1. Types and design of models

4.4.2. Modeling effects and consequences

Conclusions

Chapter 5. Biological and ecological consequences of oil spills

5.1. General characteristics of effects and consequences

5.2. Impact on the main groups of marine biota

5.2.1. Plankton and nekton

5.2.2. Benthos

5.2.3. Marine birds

5.2.4. Marine mammals

5.3. Consequences of different types of oil spills

5.3.1. Oil spills in offshore and sublithoral zones

5.3.2. Oil spill in near-shore zone

5.4. Recovery of ecosystems and communities after oil spills

5.4.1. General features and dynamics of recovery

5.4.2. Long-term effects

5.4.3. Comparative analysis of precedents

5.5. Consequences of hydrocarbon underwater releases

5.5.1. Natural petroleum hydrocarbon seeps

5.5.2. Accidental natural gas releases

Conclusions

Chapter 6. Oil spill impacts on commercial species stocks and fisheries

6.1. Impact on living resources

6.1.1. Eco-toxicological assessment

6.1.2. Retrospective analysis

6.2. Consequences for fisheries and mariculture

6.2.1. Temporary limitations and ban on activities

6.2.2. Oil contamination and tainting of seafood

6.2.3. Measures of control and regulation

6.2.4. Economical damage and compensation

Ecotoxicological Approaches

Conclusions

Chapter 7. Ecological risk of oil spills in the Russian seas

7.1. General situation and regional aspects

7.2. Okhotsk Sea (Sakhalin shelf)

7.2.1. Causes, amount and rate of spills

7.2.2. Forecasting oil spills scenarios and effects

7.3. Barents sea and Arctic regions

7.4. Baltic Sea

7.5. Black and Azov Seas

7.6. Caspian Sea

Conclusions

Chapter 8. Strategies, methods and means of response to marine spills

8.1. Modern strategy and methodology of response

8.1.1. Ecological base, principles and approaches

8.1.2. NEBA methodology

8.1.3. Lessons of precedents

8.2. Methods and tools for oil spill response

8.2.1. General characteristics

8.2.2. Response at sea

8.2.3. Shoreline clean-up

8.3. Theory and practice of dispersant application

8.4. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response

8.5. Oil spill cost and response efficiency

Conclusions

Chapter 9. Ecological monitoring of oil spills and their effects

9.1. Types, objectives and methodology of monitoring observations

9.2. Emergency monitoring

9.2.1. Visual diagnostics and estimates

9.2.2. Instrumental methods and tools

9.3. Monitoring of oil spill effects

9.3.1. Chemical analytical methods

9.3.2. Biological methods

9.3.3. Potential, problems, limitations

Conclusions

Chapter 10. International and national experience in oil spill response

10.1. Present situation, conceptual approaches and principles

10.2. International conventions and practice of their application

10.2.1. MARPOL 73/78

10.2.1. OPRC 1990 Convention

10.2.3. Regional aspects

10.3. Oil spill compensation systems

10.4. National legislation and regulations

Conclusions

General Conclusions

References

Appendixes:

I. Recommended structure and contents of oil spill response plan (OSRP)

II. Recommendations on methods and means for shoreline response operations

Index



Synopsis of Dr.Patin's new book "OIL SPILLS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND LIVING RESOURCES "



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